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September 2012

September 02, 2012

ドレフュス事件ー大佛次郎 Jiro Osaragi - Dreyfus Affair

大佛次郎さんの本を読みました。
フランス4部作というのがあって、他に「パナマ事件」、「パリ燃ゆ」、「ブウランジェ将軍の悲劇」があるのですが、日本人作家から見たフランスの歴史を知るというのも良いと思って、これから読破したいです。ただし、すべて絶版のため、図書館で借りなければなりませんが…。

今回は「大佛次郎集」を借りたので、他に「霧笛」と「帰郷」も読みました。どちらも面白くて、子供が一人遊びしたり昼寝したりしている時間を見計らって、一気に読んでしまいました。

I read some stories by Jiro Osaragi, a Japanese novelist. He also wrote some non-fictions and among them there are the Four Works of France; "Dreyfus Affair", "Panama Scandals", "Paris on fire", and "The Tragedy of General Boulanger". I thought it would be good to learn about the history of France through the Japanese writer's point of view. I would like to read the rest of his works as soon as possible... although I have to go to a library because all of them are out of print.

This time, I borrowed "Jiro Osaragi Collection" so I also read "Muteki (foghorn)" and "Return to Home". They are all very interesting and I devoted in reading while my child was playing alone or taking a nap.

book『霧笛』Muteki (Foghorn)book
大佛次郎記念館のカフェの名前にもなっていますが、横浜、山手を舞台にした話。知っている地名もたくさん出て来て、100年ちょっと前はどんな風景だろうと想像しながら読むのは楽しかったです。
山手の洋館に住み、貿易をしているイギリス人の主人と、奉公人の日本人の話で、ちょっとハラハラドキドキする所もありました。

そういえば、私の祖母は本牧に「奉公」に行ったそうです。奉公先がどんな所なのかは知りませんが…とにかく祖母は外国が嫌いで、とくにアメリカと中国は嫌っていました。奇しくも、その両国は私が学生時代に興味を持って何度となく訪れた所で…出発前にはお小遣いももらったし、お土産には困りました。何あげても喜ばないかなぁと。洋裁が得意だったので、中国では絹の布を買って帰ったのですが、しぶしぶブラウスを「こさえて(祖母はよくこの言葉を使っていました)」、着ていたら誰かに褒められたらしく、それ以来大変気に入った様子でしたcoldsweats01
祖母は居留地からそう遠くないところに住んでいたので、外国人を嫌う何かがあったのかな。中華街もずっと「南京町」って呼んでいたなぁ。今となれば、戦争のことも含めてもっと聞いておけばよかったと、後悔しています。

This title is used as the name of the cafe next to the Museum of Jiro Osaragi in Yokohama. The setting is in Yamate, Yokohama, where many foreigners lived after the opening of this country about 150 years ago. So there appears many names of places in Yokohama so it was very interesting for me to imagine how it looked like in a hundred and some years ago in Yokohama...
The story is about a British man (master) who lived in Yamate and do some trading business and a Japanese servant, and there are some thrilling scenes in it.

By the way, my grandma said she "served" at some place in Honmoku. I have no idea where she served at. She disliked foreign countries particularly the U.S. and China, where, in contrary, I was interested and visited several times when I was a student. She gave me some money before I left, so I was confused what to buy for her as souvenirs because I was sure she wouldn't like anything from the two countries. As she was good at sewing, I bought back some silk and she made a blouse with it (maybe unwillingly?). After somebody gave her some compliments on it, she turned happy to wear it.
I was wondering if she had any bad experience with foreigners when she was young since she lived not very far from those housing area. She was calling China Town "nankin machi", too. It's my biggest regret that I didn't ask her about these things and about the war in detail...

book『ドレフュス事件』Dreyfus Affairbook
実はこの方、夫の先祖と出身地が同じ、アルザスのミュールーズで、なんというか、全くの他人事と思えない感じで、知りたいと思っていました。
すごく複雑な経緯があって、一言では言い表せませんが、スパイの嫌疑をかけられたドレフュス氏がユダヤ人だったことや、軍部が「誤審」をしたことを認めることができず、ドレフュス氏は島送りになり、心身ともに苦痛を与えられることとなり、また彼を援護しようとした人々も危険が迫ったりしたということでした。フランスは普仏戦争でアルザス=ロレーヌを失い、ドレフュス氏は兄がドイツ人となって家を継いだため、彼ともう一人の兄弟はフランスを選択し、軍に入ったとのこと。この辺りもなかなか複雑。でも世間ではユダヤ人に対する不信感のようなものがあり、スパイの嫌疑をかけられてしまったそうです。
5年後の再審で、「特赦」という形で釈放され、そのずっと後に無罪となりました。ちなみに。事件を糾弾したゾラを支援した友人にはモネもいたそうです。

日本人の私にはユダヤ人ということも何かピンとこないものがあるのですが…(必ずしも見た目で分からないし)。この小説が発表されたのが昭和の初めで、大佛さんは日本の社会に警鐘をならす意味も込めていたそうです。軍が政治的な力を持つということ…。

Mr. Dreyfus is from Mulhouse, Alsace, where the ancestor of Carl is from, so I was more interested in this affair and even felt some connection.
It's very complicated and I am not sure if I can describe in a right way, but Mr. Dreyfus was suspected as a German spy, the military couldn't admit their false judgement, so Mr. Dreyfus was sent to an island where he spent many years physically, mentally suffered, and those who tried to defend him were also in danger. France lost Alsace=Lorraine after the war and the people had to choose to be German or French. As Mr.Dreyfus's elder brother decided to stay there to be German and keep the family, he and another brother chose to be French and he served for the military. However there was negative feelings toward Jewish people and that one of the reasons that caused the false arrest according to the story.
He was brought to the court again in five years and then offered a pardon and was finally released. After some more years, he was fully exonerated at last. Among the supporting friends of Zora, who accused the cover-ups of the military, there was Monet.

As a Japanese, I don't understand what being Jewish matters really (it's not always easy to tell if one is Jewish or not from the outside, either) ... The story was published in early Showa period (1930) and I heard that he was trying to warn Japanese society... how dangerous it would be that the military has power on politics.

「帰郷」Return to Home
こちらは終戦間際と戦後のお話。話は東南アジアから始まり、仲間と行った不正の罪を全部かぶって軍から逃げた元軍人が、日本に帰って娘と再会する、というのが大筋ですが、他にも色々な魅力的な人物が出て来て、おもしろかったです。
This story starts from right before the end of the world war two in south Asia, and after the war in Japan. The main character carried out some fraud with other soldiers in army and he ran away wearing all the guilt on him, then he met his daughter in Japan. There were various attractive characters and it was interesting.

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